-The manuscript can be written in either Bahasa Indonesia or English.
-The manuscript is typed using Microsoft Word program on A4 paper, around 5,000-7,000 words in Arial -size 12 pts and 1.5 space.
-The writing system for research outcome consists of:


The title is not exceeding 15 words, written in capital letter, middle align (centered), and size 14 pts. It should be clear, concise, and informative. Abbreviation should be avoided.

Name of the author

The name of author is written without any academic degree with size 12 pts, followed by the name of the author's institution and its address with size 10 pts.

Abstract with keywords

Abstraction is written in both Bahasa Indonesia and English, ranges from 150-200 words, space 1, with italic format and includes 3-5 keywords.


The introduction contains general background, problem formulation that can depart from the cases discussed or gaps from previous studies that lead to questions to be addressed, the author's arguments, and the purpose of the article. In this section, authors should also demonstrate novelty of this article.

Literature Review

Literature review contains concepts and/or theories used in the article discussion. The name of literature review can be adjusted (or substituted) using names that reflect the concepts and/or theories discussed in this sub-section.


The research methods should elaborate on the method utilized in addressing the issues including the method of analysis

Result and Discussion

The research result and discussion section contain results of the research findings and their ensuing discussions. The findings acquired from the results of the conducted research should be written with the supplementary support of adequate data. The research results and findings should be able to resolve or provide explanations to the question stated in the introduction.


Conclusions do not contain repetition of the discussion but rather reaffirmation of the problems previously discussed, the author's arguments, and the findings of the author in a concise and solid. Conclusions can also contain recommendations and suggestions that the author will convey to stakeholders or future research direction related to the topic of discussion.


Reference contains a list of libraries quoted in the article. It should follow the American Political Science Association (APSA) format. Reference sources consist of, at the least, 80% printed literature published in the last 10 years. The reference is sources in the form of research articles in a journal or in a research report (including undergraduate theses, postgraduate theses, dissertations, books, and other relevant publications).